Mawazo (sing. wazo) is a comprehensive Kiswahili word covering the following activities of the mind: meditations, reflections, thoughts, opinions, and ideas.


Mawazo is a multidisciplinary international, peer reviewed journal published in English by the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Makerere University. It is a scholarly journal of research and opinions in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Mawazo was first published in June 1967 as a publication of the Faculties of Arts and Social Sciences, Makerere University to promote national consciousness and pan-Africanism through the promotion of basic research in the humanities and social sciences. Mawazo seeks to disseminate cutting-edge research and opinions relevant and reflective of African realities. The thorough multidisciplinary character of the journal enables it to analyse the African conditions in a more holistic manner.

The journal is interested in receiving continuously well-written papers that conform to its guidelines for possible publication in the next volumes. The focus of the papers should be original and appeal to academicians, researchers, policymakers, administrators, and general readers. Papers for publication in the June 2018 issue are already being processed. The papers for the December 2018 issue is now open and the dateline for final receipt of papers is Wednesday 30 May 2018. The Editor will regularly receive manuscripts by dateline 15 March for June Issues and 15 August for December Issues.

Information for Authors

1. The manuscript should be original. Articles for consideration should not have been published elsewhere in full or in part and should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere.

2. The manuscript should be in MS Word format and submitted as an email attachment.

3. Manuscripts should range between 4000 and 8000 words inclusive of an abstract, tables, footnotes, appendixes, and references.

4. The title should be on page 1 and not exceed 15 words. The article should have an abstract of no more than 200 words and about 5 keywords or key phrases. The author’s name and affiliations should be on the front page including an email and mailing address for contact.

5. Authors will receive 2 hard copies of the journal containing their published articles.

6. It is not our policy to charge authors to be published and similarly we do not pay authors for their contributions.

Peer Review Policy

Mawazo is a refereed journal. All research articles in this journal undergo rigorous peer review, based on initial screening by editors and by at least two anonymous referees.

Editorial Procedures

All papers considered appropriate for publication in Mawazo are reviewed anonymously by at least two outside reviewers. The review process usually takes 4-6 weeks. The editors reserve the right to make any necessary changes to the papers, or request the author(s) to make the changes, or reject the paper. A copy of the edited paper will be sent to the author to confirm or reject tracked changes and one more time for proofreading. All papers should be corrected and returned to the editors within seven days. Once the final version of the paper has been accepted, authors are not permitted to make further changes to the text.


These general guidelines for the preparation of text should be used whether you plan to submit an electronic file via the email address below or to send paper or electronic copies to the editorial office (see below).

Mawazo Editorial office School of Social Sciences

P.O. Box 7062 Kampala Uganda


MAWAZO format requirements


Readable copy for the purposes of peer review is set in a Times New Roman typeface at a font of 12 points. Manuscript text should be double spaced with margins of at least one inch all around the page. In addition to the main text, every submission must include (1) an abstract, (2) in-text citation, (3) a reference list, and any (4) notes, (5) tables, or (6) figures mentioned in the text. A word count that includes text, notes, and references must be included in the cover letter. While MAWAZO does not have any word-count limit, we encourage authors to be as concise as possible. Authors should note that many referees balk at reading papers larger than 8,000 words (i.e., 40 pages at 200 words per page). Please organize your paper so that the elements are gathered in this order: abstract, text, references, notes (if using endnotes rather than footnotes), figures, and tables. If your paper places figures and tables where they are discussed in the text rather than at the back of the manuscript, the MAWAZO editorial board may decline to read it.

  1. Abstract

Your abstract should be as close to 100 words as possible. It should include your research question or puzzle, identify your data, and give some indication of your findings. Your abstract is likely to be sent by email to potential readers: giving an accurate and efficient statement of your project is likely to increase your chances of enlisting their aid. Unfocused, verbose abstracts may make it harder to place your paper with referees. Papers without an abstract cannot be sent to readers for peer review.

2. In-text citations

You must cite the original author if you pull in either exact phrases or sentences, or if you use essentially the same ideas, concepts, or research findings – even if paraphrasing. That is, even if you rewrite the author’s words, you must still cite the original author as the source of the ideas.

  • When referencing work in the body of a paper, you must always include (a) the author name, and (b) the year of publication. Example:

In her study of men in “women’s professions,” Kizito (1995) demonstrates that men are not disadvantaged by their gender minority status in the same way that women often are in predominantly male workplaces.

  • You can also cite multiple authors who draw on the same ideas, who have similar findings on similar topic. Example: Men in “women’s professions” often feel their masculinity is called into question by outsiders (Kizito 1995; Cross and Bagilhole 2002, Okello 2016).  
  • Whenever you draw on a new idea, concept, or finding, you must use internal citations with author’s names and years of publications. However, if you are discussing the same article or author in a series of sentences, you only need to provide a citation the first time. Example:

Okello (1997) demonstrates how the military men in her study engage in gender harassment of their women superiors. She illustrates several forms of this gender harassment, including foot-dragging and rumour spreading. Note: In the second sentence, there is no citation for the year, as you provided it in the previous sentence. However, if you discuss Miller later in the paper, you will provide the year again to make clear you are discussing the same article.

When quoting directly, you must also include the page(s) the quote is found on, and enclose the quote in parentheses. Example:

According to Tran (2002:34), the “way of the way is the way.”

  • For citations with four or more authors, write them out all the first time and subsequently use “et al.” rather than list all author names in-text. Example: Research has documented elevated infant mortality rates among children born to teenage mothers (Owor et al. 1992).  
  • Do not use titles of books and articles in your paper, or the author’s first name. Rather, use the author’s last name and internal citations to give the year of the publication. Example:

INSTEAD of: Virginia Valian, in her 1999 book Why So Slow: The Advancement of Women, shows that women in professional occupations often advance more slowly than their men counterparts.

USE: Valian (1999) shows that women in professional occupations often advance more slowly than their men counterparts.\

3) References

MAWAZO uses the author/date style of references, but it also allows notes for substantive commentary (see below). The page should follow the basic format of author, year of publication, title of publication, publisher, and if an article, the volume, issue number and page numbers. Papers without a reference list cannot be sent to readers for peer review.


  • Please be sure that your reference list is arranged in alphabetical order and that a comma precedes “and” in three-author works.  
  • Every citation in the text or substantive notes must have a corresponding reference entry, and every publication listed in the reference list must be mentioned in the text or notes.  
  • MAWAZO prefers that web pages be referred to in notes rather than in the reference list. This allows authors to explain their use of the source, including date accessed.  
  • For citations of works with three authors, MAWAZO prints all the names at first appearance in text, but uses first author’s last name plus “et al.” thereafter. Citations of works by more than three authors will appear as first author’s last name plus “et al.” at all occurrences.  
  • MAWAZO requests that authors supply inclusive page numbers for book chapters.
  •  In the reference list, we prefer complete author names (i.e., Onyango, Joseph, James Mulwana, and Kate Mukiga, not Onyango, P., J. Mulwana, and K. Mukiga).  
  • Please use headline style capitalization (capitalize all words except articles, coordinating conjunctions, and prepositions) and enclose article titles and book chapter titles in quotation marks. Please note that MAWAZO uses the comma following the first, reversed name in a pair of authors: Atekyereza, Peter and Paul Omach. 1994. “A Dilemma of Writing in Social Sciences Writing.” Mawazo 9 (2): 140–151.

Additional Examples:

, Maya. 1978. Ever Heard of Hip Hop? New York: Oxford University Press.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. “Cigarette Use among High School Students – Uganda, 2005- 1015.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 75:724-726.

Cleary, Paul D., Lawrence B. Zaborski, and John Z. Ayanian. 2004. “Sex Differences in Health over the Course of Midlife.” Pp. 37-63 in How Healthy Are We? A National Study of Well-being in Midlife, edited by O.G. Brim, C.D. Ryff, and R.C. Kessler. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

**Note that all authors after the first author have their first names listed first.

Uganda Bureau of Statistics – UBOS. 2016. “The National Population and Housing Census 2014 – Main Report.” Retrieved March 30, 2017. (

Williams, Genia. 1997. “The Lonely Way.” Uganda Journal of Political Science 42:37-64. Zenia, Gonja.** 2017. Personal Interview. Conducted April 2, 2017.

**Only include if person gives permission to be cited by name.

4. Notes

The first note (an acknowledgment note) should appear on the cover sheet of the manuscript. For the purposes of peer review, please mark this note with an asterisk and start your note numbering with “1” in the main text of the manuscript, with your substantive notes. Either footnotes or endnotes are acceptable.

5. Tables

Tables should be numbered consecutively as they appear in text. MAWAZO strongly prefers that authors number discrete items separately (table 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) as opposed to grouping items together (tables 1, table 2a, 2b, 2c). Appendix tables are numbered table A1, A2, or table B1, B2, and so on. MAWAZO frowns on the use of font in tables (i.e., bold or italic to mark a specific cell) and avoids the use of “panel” to refer to a specific group of table entries. MAWAZO requires that you collect tables together at the back of your manuscript; do not place them where cited in the text.


As is the case for tables, number figures consecutively. Select your typeface carefully: thick or very ornate letters and numbers can be difficult to read; likewise, san serif characters may be too thin for clarity. Check copy for overlapping or misspelled words. If your paper is accepted for publication, your figure will have to fit on a 26 by 42 pica surface, so it may be helpful to keep that size in mind as you create your initial artwork.

  • MAWAZO does not print colour figures. Online-only content may include colour in supplemental figures.
  • Generally, images will be crisper if you use text fill rather than gray scale for your figures.
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